Fiji n : an independent state within the British Commonwealth located on the Fiji Islands [syn: Republic of Fiji]
- fē′jē, /ˈfiːdʒiː/, /"fi:dZi:/
- fē′jē′, /ˌfiːˈdʒiː/, /%fi:"dZi:/
Proper nounFiji (or Viti)
- Bosnian: Fidži
- Breton: Fidji
- Bulgarian: Фиджи
- Chinese: 斐济 (fěi jì)
- Czech: Fidži
- Danish: Fiji
- Dutch: Fiji
- Esperanto: Fiĝio, Fiĝioj
- Fijian: Viti (Vosa Vaka Viti)
- Finnish: Fidži
- French: Fidji
- German: Fidschi
- Greek: Φίτζι (Fítzi)
- Hungarian: Fidzsi-szigetek
- Interlingua: Fiji
- Italian: Figi
- Japanese: フィジー (Fijī)
- Norwegian: Fiji
- Korean: 피지 (Piji)
- Polish: Fidżi
- Portuguese: Fiji
- Romanian: Fiji
- Russian: Фиджи
- Spanish: Fiyi
- Swedish: Fiji
- Turkish: Fiji
Fiji (lang-fj Matanitu ko Viti; ), officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (; ), is an island nation in the South Pacific Ocean east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Tuvalu. The country occupies an archipelago of about 322 islands, of which 106 are permanently inhabited, and 522 islets. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the population.
EtymologyFiji’s main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, through the pronunciation of their island neighbours in Tonga. Its emergence was best described as follows:
Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga. They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, and all their Manufactures, especially bark cloth and clubs, were highly esteemed and much in demand. They called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, and it was by this foreign pronunciation, Fiji, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known.
The first inhabitants of Fiji arrived long before contact with European explorers in the seventeenth century. Pottery excavated from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled before or around 1000 BC, although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. The Dutch explorer Abel Tasman visited Fiji in 1643 while looking for the Great Southern Continent. It was not until the nineteenth century, however, that Europeans settled the islands permanently. The islands came under British control as a colony in 1874, and the British brought over Indian contract labourers. It was granted independence in 1970. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 because the government was perceived as dominated by the Indo-Fijian (Indian) community. The second 1987 coup saw the British monarchy and the Governor General replaced by a non-executive President, and the country changed the long form of its name from Dominion of Fiji to Republic of Fiji (and to Republic of the Fiji Islands in 1997). The coups and accompanying civil unrest contributed to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties but ensured that Melanesians became the majority.
In 1990, the new Constitution institutionalised the ethnic Fijian domination of the political system. The Group Against Racial Discrimination (GARD) was formed to oppose the unilaterally imposed constitution and restore the 1970 constitution. Sitiveni Rabuka, the Lieutenant Colonel who carried out the 1987 coup became Prime Minister in 1992, following elections held under the new constitution. Three years later, Rabuka established the Constitutional Review Commission, which in 1997 led to a new Constitution, which was supported by most leaders of the indigenous Fijian and Indo-Fijian communities. Fiji is re-admitted to the Commonwealth of Nations. The new millennium brought along another coup, instigated by George Speight, that effectively toppled the government of Mahendra Chaudhry, who became Prime Minister following the 1997 constitution. Commodore Frank Bainimarama assumed executive power after the resignation, possibly forced, of President Mara. Fiji was rocked by two mutinies at Suva's Queen Elizabeth Barracks, later in 2000 when rebel soldiers went on the rampage. The High Court ordered the reinstatement of the constitution, and in September 2001, a general election was held to restore democracy, which was won by interim Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase's Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua party.
In 2005, amid much controversy, the Qarase government proposed a Reconciliation and Unity Commission, with power to recommend compensation for victims of the 2000 coup, and amnesty for its perpetrators. However, the military strongly opposed this bill, especially the army's commander, Frank Bainimarama. He agreed with detractors who said that it was a sham to grant amnesty to supporters of the present government who played roles in the coup. His attack on the legislation, which continued unremittingly throughout May and into June and July, further strained his already tense relationship with the government. In late November 2006 and early December 2006, Bainimarama was instrumental in the 2006 Fijian coup d'état. Bainimarama handed down a list of demands to Qarase after a bill was put forward to parliament, part of which would have offered pardons to participants in the 2000 coup attempt. He gave Qarase an ultimatum date of 4 December to accede to these demands or to resign from his post. Qarase adamantly refused to either concede or resign and on 5 December President, Ratu Josefa Iloilo, was said to have signed a legal order dissolving Parliament after meeting with Bainimarama.
For a country of its size, Fiji has a large armed forces, and has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping missions in various parts of the world. In addition, a significant number of former military personnel have served in the lucrative security sector in Iraq following the 2003 US-led invasion.
PoliticsPolitics of Fiji normally take place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Fiji is the head of government, the President the head of state, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Fiji. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Since independence there have been four coups in Fiji, two in 1987, one in 2000 and one in late 2006. The military has been either ruling directly, or heavily influencing governments since 1987.
2006 military takeover
Citing corruption in the government, Commodore Josaia Voreqe (Frank) Bainimarama, Commander of the Republic of Fiji Military Forces, staged a military takeover on December 5 2006 against the Prime Minister that he himself had installed after the 2000 coup. There had been two military coups in 1987 and one in 2000 when the military had taken over from elected governments led by or dominated by Indo Fijians. On this occasion the military took over from an indigenous Fijian government which it alleged was corrupt and racist. The Commodore took over the powers of the President and dissolved the parliament, paving the way for the military to continue the take over.
The coup was the culmination of weeks of speculation following conflict between the elected Prime Minister, Laisenia Qarase, and Commodore Bainimarama. Bainamarama had repeatedly issued demands and deadlines to the Prime Minister. At particular issue was previously pending legislation to pardon those involved in the 2000 coup. Despite intervention to reconcile the parties by the President, Vice President and Helen Clark, Prime Minister of New Zealand there was no willingness to make concessions on either side. This therefore failed to resolve the crisis.
Bainimarama named Jona Senilagakali caretaker Prime Minister. The next week Bainimarama said he would ask the Great Council of Chiefs to restore executive powers to President, Ratu Josefa Iloilo. On December 6, Bainimarama declared a state of emergency, and warned that he would not tolerate any violence or unrest.
Following the coup, the Commonwealth of Nations held an emergency meeting in London, where they declared Fiji's membership had been suspended. On December 9, the military rulers advertised for positions in the Government, including cabinet posts, in a national newspaper. They stated people wishing to apply must be "of outstanding character", have no criminal record, and never have been bankrupt.
Also on December 9 the IFNA withdrew the right of Fiji to host the 2007 World Netball Championships as a consequence of the Military takeover. The withdrawal is expected to have a significant impact in Fiji due to the popularity of sports such as Netball.
On January 4 2007, the military announced that it was restoring executive power to President Iloilo, who made a broadcast endorsing the actions of the military. The next day, Iloilo named Bainimarama as the interim Prime Minister, indicating that the Military was still effectively in control.
In the wake of the take over, reports have emerged of intimidation of some of those critical of the interim regime. It is alleged that two individuals have died in military custody since December 2006. These deaths have been investigated and suspects charged but not yet brought to court.
Following ongoing criticism from neighbours, specifically Australia and New Zealand, the New Zealand High Commissioner Michael Green was expelled from Fiji in mid June 2007, in the aftermath of restrictive emergency regulations having been lifted (recognised as a generally positive development by outside observers).
On September 6, 2007, Commodore Frank Bainimarama said Fiji's military declared again a state of emergency as he believed ousted Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase was engaged in destabilization efforts when he returned to Suva after 8 months of exile on his home island Vanuabalavu in Lau, Elections were tentatively set on March 2009.
The interim Government set up an anti corruption Commission which have received numerous complaints and allegations, also there have been a number of high profile dismissals from government and associated industry. The anti corruption body however, has yet to successfully prosecute anyone for alleged corruption.
During November 2007 there were a number of people brought in for questioning in regard to an assassination Plot directed at the Interim Prime Minister, senior army officers and members of the Interim Cabinet.
These divisions are further divided into 14 districts.
GeographyFiji consists of 322 islands (of which 106 are inhabited) and 522 smaller islets. The two most important islands are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. The islands are mountainous, with peaks up to 1,300 metres (4,250 ft), and covered with tropical forests. Viti Levu hosts the capital city of Suva, and is home to nearly three quarters of the population. Other important towns include Nadi (the location of the international airport), and Lautoka (the location of a large sugar mill and a sea-port). The main towns on Vanua Levu are Labasa and Savusavu. Other islands and island groups include Taveuni and Kadavu (the third and fourth largest islands respectively), the Mamanuca Group (just outside Nadi) and Yasawa Group, which are popular tourist destinations, the Lomaiviti Group, outside of Suva, and the remote Lau Group. Rotuma, some 500 kilometres (310 mi) north of the archipelago, has a special administrative status in Fiji. Fiji's nearest neighbour is Tonga. The climate in Fiji is tropical and warm most of the year round.
EconomyFiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the more developed of the Pacific island economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Fiji experienced a period of rapid growth in the 1960s and 1970s but stagnated in the early 1980s. The coups of 1987 caused further contraction. Economic liberalisation in the years following the coup created a boom in the garment industry and a steady growth rate despite growing uncertainty of land tenure in the sugar industry. The expiration of leases for sugar cane farmers (along with reduced farm and factory efficiency) has led to a decline in sugar production despite a subsidised price. Subsidies for sugar have been provided by the EU and Fiji has been the second largest beneficiary after Mauritius.
Urbanization and expansion in the service sector have contributed to recent GDP growth. Sugar exports and a rapidly growing tourist industry — with 430,800 tourists in 2003 and increasing in the subsequent years — are the major sources of foreign exchange. Fiji is highly dependent on tourism for revenue. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Long-term problems include low investment and uncertain property rights. The political turmoil in Fiji has had a severe impact on the economy, which shrank by 2.8% in 2000 and grew by only 1% in 2001. The tourism sector recovered quickly, however, with visitor arrivals reaching pre-coup levels again during 2002, which has since resulted in a modest economic recovery. This recovery continued into 2004 but grew by 1.7% in 2005 and is projected to grow by 2.0% in 2006. Although inflation is low, the policy indicator rate of the Reserve Bank of Fiji was raised by 1% to 3.25% in February 2006 due to fears of excessive consumption financed by debt. Lower interest rates have so far not produced greater investment for exports. However, there has been a housing boom from declining commercial mortgage rates.
The tallest building in Fiji is the fourteen-storey Reserve Bank of Fiji Building in Suva, which opened in 1984. The Suva Central Commercial Centre, which opened in November 2005, was planned to outrank the Reserve Bank building at seventeen stories, but last-minute design changes meant the Reserve Bank building remains the tallest.
Ethnic groupsThe population of Fiji is mostly made up of native Fijians, who are Melanesians, although a few also have Polynesian ancestry (54.3%), and Indo-Fijians (38.1%), descendants of Indian contract labourers brought to the islands by the British in the nineteenth century. The percentage of the population of Indian descent has declined significantly over the last two decades due to migration for various reasons. There is also a small but significant group of descendants of indentured labourers from Solomon Islands.
About 1.2% are Rotuman — natives of Rotuma Island, whose culture has more in common with countries such as Tonga or Samoa than with the rest of Fiji. There are also small, but economically significant, groups of Europeans, Chinese and other minorities.
Relationships between ethnic Fijians and Indo-Fijians at a political level have often been strained, and the tension between the two communities has dominated politics in the islands for the past generation. The level of tension varies between different regions of the country. There are also good indications of racial harmony with the recognition of cultural and religious holidays by all races in Fiji.
ReligionReligion is one of the primary differences between indigenous Fijians and Indo-Fijians, with the former overwhelmingly Christian (97.2% at the 1996 census), and the latter mostly Hindu (70.7%) and Muslim (17.9%).
The largest Christian denomination is the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma. With 36.2% of the total population (including almost two-thirds of ethnic Fijians), its share of the population is higher in Fiji than in any other nation. Roman Catholics (8.9%), the Assemblies of God (4%), and Seventh-day Adventists (2.9%) are also significant. Fiji is also the base for the Anglican Diocese of Polynesia (part of the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia). These and other denominations also have small numbers of Indo-Fijian members; Christians of all kinds comprise 6.1% of the Indo-Fijian population. Much major Roman Catholic missionary activity was conducted through the Vicariate Apostolic of Fiji.
Hindus belong mostly to the Sanatan sect (74.3% of all Hindus) or else are unspecified (22%). The small Arya Samaj sect claims the membership of some 3.7% of all Hindus in Fiji. Muslims are mostly Sunni (59.7%) and Shia (36.7%), with an Ahmadiya minority (3.6%) regarded as heretical by more orthodox Muslims. The Sikh religion comprises 0.9% of the Indo-Fijian population, or 0.4% of the national population in Fiji. Their ancestors came from the Punjab region of India. The Bahá'í Faith has over 21 Local Spiritual Assemblies throughout Fiji and Baha'is live in more than 80 localities. The first Baha'i on the island was a New Zealander who arrived in 1924. There is also a small Jewish population on the island. Every year the Israeli Embassy organises a Passover celebration with approximately 100 people attending.
The national sport of Fiji is considered to be rugby union (see rugby union in Fiji), however rugby league is also widely played. The national team is very successful given the size of the population of the country, and has competed at four Rugby World Cups, the first being in 1987, where they reached the quarter-finals. The Fiji national side did not match that feat again until the 2007 Rugby World Cup when they upset Wales 38-34 to progress to the quarter-finals. Fiji also competes in the Pacific Tri-Nations and the Pacific Nations Cup. The sport is governed by the Fiji Rugby Union which is a member of the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance, and contributes to the Pacific Islanders rugby union team. At the club level there are the Colonial Cup and Pacific Rugby Cup. The Fiji sevens team is one of the most successful rugby sevens teams in the world, having won the two world cup titles and the 2006 IRB Series.
Following is a list of Notable Fijians in Sport:
- Jimmy Snuka, a Hall of Fame professional wrestler.
- Vijay Singh, A professional golfer.
- Waisale Serevi, a world-renowned sevens rugby player, is from Fiji. Commentators often refer to him as either "the Magician", "Maestro" or also "the King of Sevens".
- Lote Tuqiri, dual code international for Australia in rugby league and rugby union, and former captain of the Fiji national rugby league team.
- Petero Civoniceva, representative footballer for the Australia national rugby league team.
- Sitiveni Sivivatu and Joe Rokocoko are Fijians who play for New Zealand's All Blacks.
- Rupeni Caucau plays for a French rugby union club.
- David Rodan and Alipate Carlile, professional Australian rules footballers in the Australian Football League.
Fiji's culture is a rich mosaic of indigenous, Indian, Chinese and European traditions, comprising social polity, language, food, costume, belief systems, architecture, arts, craft, music, dance and sports.
The indigenous culture is very much active and living, and is a part of everyday life for the majority of the population. However, it has evolved with the introduction of vibrant and old cultures like the Indian and Chinese ones, as well as a large influence from Europe, and from various Pacific neighbors of Fiji, mainly the Tongan and Rotuman. The culture of Fiji has created a unique communal and national identity.
- On Fiji Islands Traces the colonization of the Fiji Islands, explains how the Fijians have managed to keep their language and culture intact, and describes modern Fiji society.
- The Fiji Islands: A Geographical Handbook Details on Fiji its history and Geography.
- Broken Waves: A History of the Fiji Islands in the Twentieth Century Details of Fiji's History, Geography, Economy.
- Back to the Chessboard: The Coup and the Re-Emergence of Pre-colonial Rivalries in Fiji. In: Politics of Indigeneity in the South Pacific
- Fiji Travel guide.
- A History of Fiji
- Fiji: A Short History
- The King and People of Fiji
External linkssisterlinks Fiji
- wikitravel Fiji
- Fijiguide.com - A comprehensive Travel and Culture Guide to Fiji
- CIA Factbook
- Official Website of the Government of Fiji
- Official Website of the Parliament of Fiji
- Bulafiji.com. Official Fiji Visitors Bureau website
- The Fiji Times - Fiji News, Sport and Weather from Fiji's leading newspaper
- Open Directory Project - Fiji directory category
- Documents affecting Fiji at the Diplomacy Monitor
- Seacology Fiji Projects Seacology
Fiji in Afrikaans: Fidji
Fiji in Arabic: فيجي
Fiji in Aragonese: Fichi
Fiji in Franco-Provençal: Fidj·i
Fiji in Asturian: Fiyi
Fiji in Bengali: ফিজি
Fiji in Min Nan: Fiji
Fiji in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Фіджы
Fiji in Bosnian: Fidži
Fiji in Bulgarian: Фиджи
Fiji in Catalan: Fiji
Fiji in Chuvash: Фиджи
Fiji in Cebuano: Fiji
Fiji in Czech: Fidži
Fiji in Welsh: Fiji
Fiji in Danish: Fiji
Fiji in German: Fidschi
Fiji in Dhivehi: ފިޖީ
Fiji in Estonian: Fidži
Fiji in Modern Greek (1453-): Φίτζι
Fiji in Spanish: Fiyi
Fiji in Esperanto: Fiĝioj
Fiji in Basque: Fiji
Fiji in Persian: فیجی
Fiji in Fijian Hindustani: Fiji
Fiji in French: Fidji
Fiji in Irish: Fidsí
Fiji in Manx: Fiji
Fiji in Scottish Gaelic: Fìdi
Fiji in Galician: Fidxi - Viti
Fiji in Korean: 피지
Fiji in Hindi: फ़िजी
Fiji in Croatian: Fidži
Fiji in Ido: Fidji
Fiji in Iloko: Fiji
Fiji in Bishnupriya: ফিজি
Fiji in Indonesian: Fiji
Fiji in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Fiji
Fiji in Ossetian: Фиджи
Fiji in Icelandic: Fídjieyjar
Fiji in Italian: Figi
Fiji in Hebrew: פיג'י
Fiji in Javanese: Fiji
Fiji in Pampanga: Fiji
Fiji in Kannada: ಫಿಜಿ
Fiji in Georgian: ფიჯი
Fiji in Kashmiri: फिजी
Fiji in Kazakh: Фиджи
Fiji in Cornish: Fiji
Fiji in Swahili (macrolanguage): Fiji
Fiji in Haitian: Fidji
Fiji in Kurdish: Fîjî
Fiji in Latin: Viti
Fiji in Latvian: Fidži
Fiji in Luxembourgish: Fidschi
Fiji in Lithuanian: Fidžis
Fiji in Ligurian: Fiji
Fiji in Hungarian: Fidzsi-szigetek
Fiji in Macedonian: Фиџи
Fiji in Malay (macrolanguage): Fiji
Fiji in Nauru: Fiji
Fiji in Fijian: Viti
Fiji in Dutch: Fiji
Fiji in Japanese: フィジー
Fiji in Norwegian: Fiji
Fiji in Norwegian Nynorsk: Fiji
Fiji in Occitan (post 1500): Fiji
Fiji in Uzbek: Fiji
Fiji in Pushto: فېجي
Fiji in Piemontese: Figi
Fiji in Low German: Fidschi
Fiji in Polish: Fidżi
Fiji in Portuguese: Fiji
Fiji in Crimean Tatar: Fici
Fiji in Romanian: Fiji
Fiji in Quechua: Phiyi
Fiji in Russian: Фиджи
Fiji in Northern Sami: Fijisullot
Fiji in Samoan: Fiti
Fiji in Sanskrit: फिजी
Fiji in Albanian: Ishujt e Fildisht
Fiji in Sicilian: Figgi
Fiji in Simple English: Fiji
Fiji in Slovak: Fidži
Fiji in Slovenian: Fidži
Fiji in Serbian: Фиџи
Fiji in Serbo-Croatian: Fidži
Fiji in Finnish: Fidži
Fiji in Swedish: Fiji
Fiji in Tagalog: Fiji
Fiji in Tamil: பிஜி
Fiji in Tatar: Fiji
Fiji in Thai: ประเทศฟิจิ
Fiji in Vietnamese: Fiji
Fiji in Tajik: Фиҷи
Fiji in Tonga (Tonga Islands): Fisi
Fiji in Turkish: Fiji
Fiji in Ukrainian: Фіджі
Fiji in Volapük: Ficiyuäns
Fiji in Wolof: Fiiji
Fiji in Dimli: Fici
Fiji in Samogitian: Fėdžis
Fiji in Chinese: 斐濟